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Regulating the –19 Pandemic: Flu, Stoicism and the Northcliffe Press
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The outbreak of influenza reported in is not considered to be a pandemic, and other reports to generally lack reliability. The outbreak of is probably a pandemic reported with spreading from Africa to engulf Europe. The outbreak of is possibly a pandemic. The first influenza pandemic agreed by all authors occurs in Data from this century is more informative of pandemics that those of previous years.
The first agreed influenza pandemic of the 18th century begins in Two influenza pandemics are recorded in the century. Influenza pandemics are recorded four times, starting with the deadly Spanish flu.here
Item 7.5 Review of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework
This is also the period of virus isolation and development of vaccines. Although the virus seems to have caused epidemics throughout human history, historical data on influenza are difficult to interpret, because the symptoms can be similar to those of other respiratory diseases.
International health organizations merge, and large scale vaccination campaigns begin. Worldwide accessible databases multiply in order to control outbreaks and prevent pandemics. New influenza strain outbreaks still occur. Efficacy of currently available vaccines is still insufficient to diminish the current annual health burden induced by the virus. The symptoms of human influenza are described by Hippocrates. Although the last two processes dealt with antiviral medications, their results are also considered to be relevant to pandemic vaccine prioritization.
Three projects were carried out to elicit the perspectives of Canadians and other stakeholders on ethical issues in a pandemic: national opinion surveys, town hall meetings and a national stakeholder forum. Key findings relevant to prioritization are as follows:. Main goal of the pandemic response - reduce influenza-related mortality, with reduction of global mortality an important dimension of this objective. A web questionnaire was administered to students, support staff and academic staff at the University of Alberta.
Respondents were asked to rank 11 different groups for access to scarce resources and to select one of seven priority access plans. The Task Group on Antivirals for Prophylaxis deliberative dialogue process explored public and stakeholder beliefs and values in relation to antiviral prophylaxis.
Participants supported three goals:. The IOM designed and convened a series of workshops in to explore the American public's perception of potential strategies to facilitate access to antiviral medications and treatment advice during an influenza pandemic. In response to a scenario of a shortage of antivirals and overwhelmed delivery systems, participants cited several common goals and values:.
One objective of Canada's pandemic vaccine strategy is to allocate, distribute and administer vaccine as efficiently and effectively as possible. Mass immunization clinics offer the means to immunize large numbers of people over a short period. During the pandemic, the pandemic influenza vaccine was delivered by a variety of providers in a variety of settings.
Many innovative strategies were utilized to implement mass immunization clinics and manage large crowds. Footnote 64 There was no comparable national guidance document specific to planning mass immunization clinics outside of this context. The purpose of Appendix B of the CPIP Vaccine Annex is to assist public health professionals in planning mass immunization clinics for public health events such as pandemic influenza. While the document outlines key considerations in planning for mass immunization clinics in general, where possible, it highlights unique considerations for specific settings, such as remote and isolated communities and school-based clinics.
It is acknowledged, however, that remote and isolated communities may not have access to all resources e. IT available in larger, urban settings. Appendix B builds on the guidance and has been informed by currently available literature relevant to mass immunization clinic planning, implementation and evaluation in response to an emergency situation including lessons learned from the pandemic and pandemic planning documents. To establish relevant and current practices for mass immunization, clinic planning and implementation strategies were considered and targeted stakeholder consultations were undertaken with experienced frontline public health personnel and a reference group with members from across Canada.